Nursultan Nazarbayev is a Kazakh politician who served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from the country’s independence in 1991 until his formal resignation in 2019, and as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan from 1991 to 2022. Nazarbayev began his political career during the Soviet Era and served as Prime Minister of the Kazakh SSR from 1984 until 1989 when he became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan (QKP), 1989. In 1990, Nazarbayev was appointed as Kazakhstan's first president by the Supreme Soviet and supported Russian President Boris Yeltsin against the attempted coup in August 1991 by the Soviet hardliners.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Nazarbayev turned Kazakhstan into a kleptocratic dictatorship, through the ruling party Nur Otan and like many other post-communist countries, as human rights abuses were severe, dissent was suppressed, and elections were not free and fair, with Nazarbayev regularly winning over 90% of the vote. Nazarbayev established a cult of persona, with schools, streets, and even the country's capital being named after himself. In contrast to other Post-Soviet leaders such as Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus or Sapamurat Niyazov of Turkmenistan, Nazarbayev went beyond state capitalism and actively pursued privatization of industries and encouraged foreign investment by multinational corporations. During his 3-decade-long rule he managed to balance international relations between both Russia, the US, and China. Nazarbayev went to great lengths to maintain close economic ties with Russia by introducing Kazakhstan into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) while also pursuing close cooperation with NATO, and participating in China's Belt and Road Initiative.
Nazarbayev's dictatorial rule would face much resistance on multiple occasions. Most notably by businessman and political activist Mukhtar Ablyazov who lives in exile in Europe because of his political activities and corruption charges. In December 2011, opponents of Nazarbayev rioted in the Mangystau region, resulting in 15 people being shot dead by security forces, in what was known as the Zhanaozen massacre and subsequent trials and arrests of protestors revealing widespread torture and abuse of detainees. In March 2019, Nazarbayev finally resigned from the presidency amid anti-government rallies and was succeeded by his close ally Kassym-Jomart Tokayev.
After Nazarbayev's departure in 2019, Kassym-Jomart Tokayev assumed the presidency of Kazakhstan. After taking office, he adopted some reforms such as decentralization, increasing wages, decreasing corruption, ending capital punishment, a slight decrease in authoritarianism, and other reforms. Economically, he supports the private sector, in addition to adopting fiscal policies (inflation control, tax incentives, etc), increasing cryptocurrency mining, building plants. Even after Nazarbayev left, the Kazak government continued to be extremely authoritarian, as in the case of the "bloody January" that took place after demonstrations against the sharp rise in gas prices, in which the government repressed with an iron fist, with military intervention supported by the Organization of Collective Security Treaty (CSTO), but still protests escalated and became more violent, along with discontent over inequalities and the plight of the government. The government called the protesters terrorists and continued the repression, in total 227 people died and thousands were arrested, in addition to the government taking into account some of the protesters' agenda (inequality, gas price, etc).
He believes that to make Kazakhstan developed, it has to have a decentralized economy, a state that serves to develop the country and a corrupt government. In 2002, a newspaper reported that in the mid-1990s he secretly embezzled 1 billion into Swiss accounts, proving he is a kleptocrat.
How to Draw
- Draw a cube
- Fill it in from bank
- Design the program logo "Kazakhstan-2050"
- Design the Kleptocracy Hat
- Draw eyes and that's it.
- Capitalism - Economic decentralization and privatization improve the Kazakh economy.
- Kleptocracy - Thanks for the 1 billion
- Stalinism - You destroyed Kazakhstan and Lake Karachay.
- Boratism - You destroyed the reputation of Kazakhstan.