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    (Redirected from Bukharinism (IRL))
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    Bukharinism, not to be confused with its fictional Hoi4 equivalent or Bukharinaism, is a Leninist ideology advocated for by Nikolai Bukharin, Alexei Rykov, Mikhail Tomsky, and others that was in opposition to the lines of Trotsky and Zinoviev in its support of Socialism in One Country and in opposition to the line of Stalin in its opposition to rapid collectivization of agriculture and support of the New Economic Policy. Bukharin argued that rapid collectivization was unnecessary and that socialism would naturally develop from capitalist relations centralizing production in the countryside so long as a Dictatorship of the Proletariat was in control.


    Those who would eventually be considered as a part of the "Right Opposition" were allied with Stalin in promoting the possibility of building socialism within one state in light of the failure of the European communist revolutions of the late 1910s and early 1920s. During this time, Bukharin and Stalin were allied in opposing Trotsky and promoting the NEP while its contradictions were still manageable by the Soviet government. Disagreements between the two still existed, however, as demonstrated with the controversy of Bukharin telling Kulaks, "Enrich yourselves!" Stalin, who wanted to declare Kulaks as being class enemies, denounced this move. Afterwards, as the scissors crisis began to deepen in urgency alongside corruption in the countryside, Stalin began a harsh critique of the line of Bukharin, naming its adherents to be members of a "Right Opposition" opposed to the Soviet line. This Right Opposition was against the five-year plan, arguing that exploiting classes such as Nepmen will "grow into socialism" under a socialist government through market forces. The general idea of the proposed implementation can be summarized with "socialism in the cities, capitalism in the countryside." It was argued that with gradual centralization of production in the countryside, the USSR would "reach socialism precisely through market relations," using state-funded amalgamated peasant cooperatives and wealthy kulaks to squeeze the smaller private peasant farms out of existence over time, offering collective farms to those who lost market competition. Others in the Right Opposition, such as Rykov, would also support dekulakization efforts seizing property of kulaks and offering them to poor peasants, despite this running in contradiction to the role of the market squeezing smaller peasants out of existence. Throughout 1928 to 1930, this opposition group was ideologically defeated, prompting Bukharin to admit in 1930 that "the contradictions of NEP, their dimensions, character, forcefulness, and significance, have proven to be in greater proportion and content than previously thought." Many others in the Right Opposition would persist in opposing Stalin, however, with historian Pierre Broué proving the short-lived existence of a conspiratorial group consisting of some members of the former Right Opposition in 1933.

    Despite Bukharin's repudiation, he alongside many others formerly in opposition would be executed in 1938 in the Case of the Anti-Soviet Bloc of Rightists and Trotskyites, a public show trail charging 21 defendants with collaboration with foreign fascists, wrecking, sabotage, espionage, assassinating various public figures, attempting to assassinate Lenin and Stalin, and other crimes. The conception of a socialist government overseeing capitalist relations that would centralize production would be influential in forming Deng Xiaoping Theory in China several decades later.


    The beliefs of the Right Opposition stem from the teachings of Mechanists in the 1920s, who believed that change in society depended mostly on external forces. Dialectical materialists, who opposed this idea, instead proposed that the primary instigator of motion in a system was internal contradictions. Mechanists perceived all things to be machines that simply respond to external forces, with each of these isolated elements resting in equilibrium if no force was exerted upon it from the outside. Bukharin described equilibrium as being in a state in which "without the application of external energy [a system] cannot change its condition." In essence, as was put by Raymond Bauer, "the dialecticians argued that motion is an inherent property of matter, while the mechanists considered motion to be a property that is imparted to matter from without." The conception held by mechanists was criticized by Soviet philosophers as being anti-Marxist, as would be emphasized with the publishing of Engels's Dialectics of Nature and Lenin's Philosophical Notebooks in the Soviet Union. Indeed, Lenin in particular was a frequent criticizer of Bukharin's understanding of dialectics, frequently calling him a follower of eclecticism masked as dialectics.

    Bukharin advocated for understanding dialectics not through Hegelian terms but through mechanism, saying that that Marx and Engels relied too heavily on idealism with the idea of self-development of matter. He advocated departing from what he called "the mystificatory dialectic" of Marx to a "theory of equilibrium," denouncing the Marxist conception of quantitative change resulting into new qualitative changes by deeming qualitative changes to be nonsense. Focusing primarily on external contradiction would lead followers of mechanism into determinism, as concepts such as class consciousness or the distinction between freedom and necessity to be meaningless. Bukharin advocated for the idea that Kulaks would "grow into socialism" over time peacefully and without state interference.

    With these theories, as class struggle is the conception of internal contradictions, Bukharin argued that class struggle was irrelevant with the formation of a Dictatorship of the Proletariat. With the development of capitalism, he argued, socialism will be brought about automatically with the natural development of market forces. In this way, without class struggle, socialism will be achieved without collectivization due to it being pre-determined from the way capitalism develops.

    Eventually, with the development of the scissors crisis and the weakening of Soviet power due to massive corruption, such theories were deemed to be proven wrong by the Soviet state. As such, Bukharin lost many of his political positions before repudiating his views in 1930, admitting that the contradictions of the NEP needed state interference and renouncing his oppositionist views.

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    • Trotskyism - Fuck you Trotsky! Stalin was right to purge you from the party!
    • Stalinism - I am not a deviationist! Also, you fucking purged me! But we worked against Trotsky.

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