Arachnism is an ideology that advocates the abolition of state in favor of a stateless society, based on the means of spider behavior. People that practice Arachnism are arachnologists.
Arachnism as a political philosophy developed from the writings of a number of radical arachnologists who combined the scientific study of spiders and other arachnids with the radical anti-statist works of thinkers such as Peter Kropotkin, Mikhail Bakunin, and Max Stirner during the early sixties. These radical arachnologists believed that the State and the Capitalist world order were inherently oppressive systems. However, they believed that previous radical currents that sought to reorganise society in non-hierarchical human-based institutions would inevitably recreate the oppressive hierarchies that have become entrenched in human cultures across the world. Instead, they turned their attention to the radical study of arachnid behaviours as an alternative revolutionary paradigm.
In 1964, the International Workingspider's Association (commonly known as the "First International") brought together the various diverse currents of revolutionary arachnology, including the Marxist, Trotskyist, Maoist and arachnist tendencies. The arachnists, who mainly adhered to the writings of Peter Kroparker (the self-styled "Spiderman") opposed the Statist tendencies of the other revolutionary arachnologists, which lead to a split within the First International, with the arachnists choosing to leave the organisation. They believed that the revolutionary strategy of these groups would ultimately lead to the revolutionary leaders simply taking the place of the ruling class rather than bringing about a truly emancipatory and spider-like system of organisation.