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    Anarcho-Futurism, also known as Futurist Anarchism, is an anarchist, anti-fascist, anti-capitalist and culturally revolutionary ideology that combines anarchist politics and thought, often insurrectionary, individualist or syndicalist strands of anarchism, with the values of Futurism, including but not limited to speed, violence, cultural rejuvenation, rejection of tradition and the past and embrace of action, passion and emotion. In addition to the writings of F.T. Marinetti and assorted Italian and Russian Futurists, it is also heavily influenced by the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche and occasionally Max Stirner. Despite borrowing elements of Marinetti's thought, Anarcho-Futurism rejects classical Futurism's enthusiasm for fascism, alignment with Benito Mussolini and the Italian Fascist regime and compromise with conservative and bourgeois elements of society.

    History

    The Anarchist Roots of Italian Futurism

    From its very inception, the Futurist art movement and its political ideology has been heavily influenced by anarchist ideas. At the beginning of the 20th century, Italian poet Filippo Tomasso Marinetti, the movement's founder, regularly attended anarchist meetings and had befriended a number of prominent anarcho-syndicalists. The ninth point of the Manifesto of Futurism, published in February 1909, spoke of the glorification of "the destructive gesture of the anarchists" (sometimes also translated as "libertarians" or "freedom bringers") and throughout 1909-1910, seeing similarities between the beaux gestes libertaires of anarchists and the art-action espoused by Futurism, Marinetti had attempted to gain support from various anarchist groups in order to form an alliance of revolutionaries in both politics and the arts, including suggesting collaboration between "the extremes of politics and literature" in the anarchist journal La demolizione in March 1910. Despite initial interest from anarchists, socialists and syndicalists towards Marinetti's ideas, he had begun distancing Futurism from anarchism by 1911. In Le futurisme, Marinetti argued that anarchist thought "brings its forward-looking viewpoint to a halt in the ideal of universal peace" and that only political Futurism advocated for the "continuous development and unending progress, both bodily and intellectual, of man". Although over time a large number of Italian Futurists aligned themselves with the rising Fascist movement, several Futurists who deviated from Marinetti sought to combine elements of Futurism with their anarchist beliefs.

    Dissenting Voices and the Futuristi di Sinistra

    One of the first anarcho-futurists to criticise Marinetti was lawyer and journalist Renzo Provinciali. In his 1912 manifesto Futurism and Anarchy, Provinciali argues that a revolutionary and avant-garde artistic movement such as Futurism was wholly incompatible with the bourgeois politics that Marinetti failed to denounce, professing anarchism to be the truest political expression of Futurist values, going on to ask "How is it possible to imagine a bourgeois art in an anarchist society, or a futurist art in a bourgeois society?".

    Furthermore, throughout the 1910s and early 1920s, a number of individualist anarchists in Italy aligned themselves with leftist currents of the Futurist art movement, among these being the poet, philosopher and militant Renzo Novatore. Novatore was also involved as a member with the militant anti-fascist Arditi del Popolo alongside fellow anarchist and Futurist Auro d'Arcola. Other such "futurists on the left" (futuristi di sinistra as known in Italian) who associated with Novatore or drew heavily from individualist anarchist ideas were Giovanni Governato, Dante Carnesecchi and Leda Rafanelli. Painter Carlo Carrà was one prominent Futurist artist who held anarchist views in his youth, also having a brief relationship with Rafanelli, though Carrà would soon turn to ultranationalism and irridentism, supporting fascism from 1918 onwards.

    Unlike Marinetti and his Futurist Political Party, which was absorbed into the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in 1919, the individualistic anarcho-futurists did not have much influence over contemporary Italian politics. While a shift away from Marinetti's ideas among the futurists of the left had already taken place over the past decade, after the rise of Benito Mussolini to power in Italy in 1922, many anarchists who had initially allied themselves with the movement abandoned Futurism entirely.

    Modern Anarcho-Futurism

    WIP

    Beliefs

    Futurism

    WIP

    Anarchism

    WIP

    Personality and behaviour

    WIP

    How to draw

    1. Draw a ball with a diagonal line running across it.
    2. Colour the upper section in red and the lower section in black.
    3. Draw, in white, a hand holding a burning torch in the center of the ball.
    4. Add the eyes and you're done!
    Color Name HEX RGB
    Red #FF0000 255, 0, 0
    Black #141414 20, 20, 20
    White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255


    Relationships

    Friends

    • Anarchism without Adjectives - Anarchism has always been Futurist, with its rage against exploitation, authority and conventionalism, and anarchists will be the ones to carry forth the Futurist ideal!
    • Anarcho-Communism - A worthy comrade, albeit blinded by utopian visions of universal peace and frolicking in flower fields. Nothing but eternal progress and struggle, fought with fire in our hearts!
    • Anarcho-Individualism - Fellow champion of the individual creative spirit! You're pretty much me, but with a lot less avant-garde art.
    • Anarcho-Syndicalism - My main means of praxis in my earlier days! Also, we both like Sorel's work quite a lot.
    • Futurism - Leave tradition and the past as a burning, smoldering wreck in a gesture of anarchic passion! Down with bourgeoise art and culture!
    • Illegalism - Renzo Novatore was based!
    • Insurrectionary Anarchism - Violenza! Furia! Rivolta! Take up arms against the tyranny of traditional order!
    • Post-Leftism - Fellow anarchist who rejects moralistic and utilitarian dogmas too. But you need virility and vitality, less philosophical pondering, more focus on beauty through action!

    Frenemies

    • Anarcho-Pacifism - A fellow anarchist, but misguided and led astray. Revolution is struggle, and violence is the brush with which we paint the art of rebellion.
    • Futurist Fascism - You taught me all there is to know about art, beauty and violence, and some of you protested in favour of freeing comrades Ferrer and Malatesta, but you adopting him was ultimately the suicide of Futurism's revolutionary spirit.
    • Left-Accelerationism - A very interesting modern day development who wants to escape capitalism through speed like me. Too theoretical for my liking though.
    • Vperedism - Good to see a fellow leftist comrade who loves Futurist art too, but I really don't like technocracy or Bolshevism. At least unlike him, you understand that revolutionary society requires revolutionary art and culture.

    Enemies

    • Anarcho-Conservatism - You corrupt the revolutionary spirit of anarchy! How can you keep bourgeoise art and social norms in an anarchist society?
    • Authoritarian Conservatism - Revolt against authority and smash the idols of all of civilisation's traditions!
      • I've never seen anything worse, you're like both him and this psycho put together! I'll have my riot police shoot you!
    • Capitalism - Art exists as a means of freedom and revolutionary creative expression, not as a product of commerce!
    • Christian Theocracy - I'll blast your churches to smithereens!
    • Classical Conservatism - I just knew so-called "high culture" and bourgeoise class society go hand in hand! I'll take a Molotov to your museums!
    • Fascism - The manifestation of conformity and reaction, and the anathema to the youthful, the anarchic, the avant-garde!
    • Reactionary Modernism - Just another authoritarian reactionary, albeit one that hides its ugly truth under the mask of revolution and modernity.

    Further information

    Literature

    1. Excerpt from the Anarcho-Futurist Manifesto.
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