Positivism is a philosophy that believes genuine knowledge can be derived exclusively from sensory experience of natural phenomena and their properties and relations, interpreted through reason and logic. It stresses out the importance of "positive facts" or empirical evidence in understanding both the natural universe as well as social reality.
While Positivism does not reject Metaphysics as a field of philosophical study of the nature of existence it does reject the notion of existence of any kind of metaphysical forces or essences since such things (just like the existence of God) cannot be confirmed using empirical science. Because of that Positivism tries to overhaul philosophy in a way that would eliminate any pondering on the nature of being that is not supported by empirical evidence.
Social and other "Soft" Sciences
Contrary to popular belief Positivism does not reject social sciences or any other sciences commonly considered to be "soft". Positivism merely believes that all sciences including social science, study of history etc. should be based on the scientific method of circular dependence of theory and empirical observation.
Positivism believes that all sciences are ultimately connected and can be placed into a kind of hierarchy where sciences at the top apply knowledge of sciences that stand lower than them in the hierarchy. For example sociology has to draw on the knowledge of psychology, psychology on biology, biology on chemistry, chemistry on physics and physics on mathematics.
Positivism believes that every society goes through 3 phases in its quest for the truth:
- Theological - Based on people's whole-hearted belief in the existence of God/gods. In this stage Humanity's place in society is governed by its association with the divine and religious institutions like the church.
- Metaphysical - Based on the assumption that there exist a sort of innate and universal laws, essences and impersonal forces (Like the concept of natural, self-evident laws) governing the universe. This stage states that the universal rights of humanity are most important. The central idea is that humanity is invested with certain rights that must be respected.
- Positive - Based purely on positive facts. In this stage there is no higher power governing the masses and the intrigue of any one person can achieve anything based on that individual's free will.
How to Draw
- Draw a ball and color it with dark blue (#11185c)
- Add a white plus sign on it
- Add eyes
Positivism is an optimistic and intelligent ball, often preoccupied with performing experiments or writing his theories. He believes that nothing is beyond the capabilities of science and sees religious and spiritual balls as foolish to depend on concepts that remain unproven by scientific method.
- Scientocracy - Government should indeed depend on science.
- Technocracy - A government of scientists? Great Idea!
- Laicism - There is no place for religion in the modern government.
- New Atheism - Fighting the good fight against superstition.
- Aristotelianism - The first empiricist, but what's this "teleology" nonsense?
- Scientific Deism - Proving God with empiric evidence? I have to see before I believe.